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- The clam fishery based on the species Ruditapes decussatus is one of the oldest mollusc fishery practices in Europe and was one of Europe's most important marine resources until the 1960's. For aquaculture purposes, the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum was then deliberately introduced as hatchery brood stock into France in 1972 and into the UK and Ireland in 1980 and 1982, respectively.
- The species Manila clam, native to Japan, Korea, and the Philippines, was introduced accidentally, along with Pacific oysters, into North America during the 1930's. Currently, the Manila clam is distributed widely on Pacific coasts of Canada and the USA, Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts of Western Europe, Korean and Japanese waters, as well as on the East coast of China. In contrast, R. decussatus can only be found on the Atlantic coasts of North Africa and Western Europe south of Scandinavian waters.
- We further critically discuss methods for reference gene validation based on a case study using copper exposed primary hemocytes from the marine bivalve Ruditapes philippinarum; including the established algorithms geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, as well as the popular online tool RefFinder.  .
|Gene Symbol||Gene Name||Application Scope||Accession Number||Primer||Size [bp]||Tm [℃]||Detection|
|EF1A||elongation factor 1 alpha||
|GAPDH||glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (phosphorylating) activity||
|TUBA||tubulin alpha chain, mRNA sequence||
|RPS20||40s Ribosomal Protein s20||
- geNorm method && Related Reference
- NormFinder method && Related Reference
- BestKeeper method && Related Reference
- Name: Moritz Volland
- Email: email@example.com
- Institution: Instituto de Ciencias Marinas de Andalucía (CSIC), Campus Universitario Río San Pedro s/n, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz, Spain
Cited by 0 (Based on Google Scholar [2017-06-01])
- Volland M, Blasco J, Hampel M (2017) Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR in marine bivalve ecotoxicology: Systematic review and case study using copper treated primary Ruditapes philippinarum hemocytes. Aquat Toxicol 185, 86-94.
- Donaghy L, Lambert C, Choi KS, Soudant P (2009) Hemocytes of the carpet shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus) and the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum): Current knowledge and future prospects. Aquaculture 297, 10-24.