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  • Symbiodinium is a genus of phototrophic, peridin-containing dinoflagellates that live as endosymbionts (zooxanthellae) in a wide variety of tropical marine invertebrates. Symbiodinium is responsible for the majority of primary production in coral reefs and found in a mutualistic symbiosis with multiple animal phyla. The genus Symbiodinium encompasses eight lineages (clades A–H), and multiple sub-clade types. Symbiodinium in clades A, B, C, and D are most commonly associated with metazoan hosts while clades C, D, F, G, and H with large soritid foraminifera[1][2].
  • Common Name: Zoox, Zooxanthellae
  • NCBI Taxonomy

Abiotic Stress

Reference Genes

Gene Symbol Gene Name Application Scope Accession Number Primers (5'-3')
Size [bp] Tm [℃] Detection
Rp-S4 [1] Ribosomal protein S4
  • Thermal stress
101 58~59 SYBR
SAM[1] S-adenosyl-L-methionine synthetase
  • Thermal stress
101 59 SYBR

Molecular Types

  • mRNA

Evaluation Methods


  • Name: Ove Hoegh-Guldberg
  • Email:
  • Institution: Global Change Institute, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane 4072( QLD, Australia

Citation Statistics

Cited by 48 (Based on Google Scholar [2017-06-16])


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Rosic N N, Pernice M, Rodriguez-Lanetty M, et al. Validation of housekeeping genes for gene expression studies in Symbiodinium exposed to thermal and light stress[J]. Marine biotechnology, 2011, 13(3): 355-365.
  2. Pochon X, Gates RD. A new Symbiodinium clade (Dinophyceae) from soritid foraminifera in Hawai'i. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010 Jul;56(1):492-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2010.03.040. Epub 2010 Apr 4. PMID: 20371383 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2010.03.040.